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OS X Trouble

Changing system date from Terminal
Now, if you haven’t used your Mac for a while, the error might be caused by an incorrect system date setting. You can check this by going to utilities and opening the terminal. Once in the terminal enter the following command and hit return/enter:
The result of this command will be the date that the system currently has been set to. For some reason, it might have been reset to 2001, in which case we need to set it to the right date. To do this, we enter a new command. This command will be entered as follows:

date -u {month}{day}{hour}{minute}{year}

Every bracket should be replaced with a two-digit number based on UTC time. Below you see what the command should be for your current time and date – February 11th, 2020 10:10. To avoid trouble with time zones, we will use UTC time instead (February 11th, 2020 18:10). Which means, you can just enter it exactly like this:

date -u 0211181020

Enter the command and hit return. You can then check if it was set correctly by running the first command again. If the date was wrong, it was likely that which caused the error, and after you quit the terminal it should be able to install OS X just fine.

After many tries to install El Capitan on a Mac Pro 2008, I've finally found that if you change under Terminal the simple command: " date 000001012016 " El Capitan installation goes well. After opening the session, don't click to adjust time at session start until all system apps are opened, don't put your ID Apple for session, because of the date, it will not respond, you'll do it later in preferences system, after, you have just to reboot your Mac, enter in your session, then adjust the time to your local position with Preferences > Date, and choose the earliest date server, all obsoletes certificates have been renewed, and it works fine.

"Certain Apple security certificates expired on October 24, 2019. There is more information at the link below. One simple workaround is to set the date prior to October 24, 2019 instead of the current date (for example date -u 1023000019). Ultimately, you’ll need to download the latest installers that have been signed with newer certificates that don’t expire until 2031."

1. Press C during Startup

Booting from a CD? You can hold down the C key on your keyboard to instantly boot to a Mac OS X or another bootable disc in your Mac.

2. Press D during Startup

Apple’s Hardware Test utility is usually run by booting from a disc that came with your computer.

3. Press Option + Command + P + R

Sometimes on a Mac, the PRAM (parameter RAM) and NVRAM (non-volatile RAM) To do this, you’ll want to turn off your Mac, and then turn it back on while holding down the Command + Option + P + R keys. Hold the keys down until the computer restarts and you hear the startup sound for the second time. Release the keys after you hear the second startup chime. The PRAM will be reset.

4. Press Option during Startup

Holding down the Option key during startup will show you a boot screen with all bootable devices listed. You can use the mouse or the keyboard to select a device to boot into.

5. Press Eject, F12, or Hold down Mouse/Trackpad Button

Sometimes discs can get stuck in your optical drive try restarting while holding down either the Eject key, F12 key, or your mouse or trackpad button.

6. Press N during Startup

If your setup includes a compatible network server (NetBoot), you can hold down the N key during startup to attempt a network boot.

7. Press T during Startup

Target Disk Mode is a great way to retrieve your files from your Mac if your machine refuses to boot properly. Sometimes it’s best to just retrieve those files and start fresh with a clean copy of OS X.

8. Press Shift During Startup

OS X includes a boot option called Safe Mode. Start-up your machine while holding down the Shift key to have OS X only load required kernel extensions and login items. It will disable all non-system fonts, all startup items, and login items.

9. Press Command + V During Startup

Command + V boots your Mac into what is called Verbose Mode. Using this key combination will cause your Mac to become very verbose on startup and will show a terminal-like interface while booting. It will contain information important to startup, allowing you to diagnose startup problems by seeing any errors that may be occurring during startup.

10. Press Command + S during Startup

Holding down Command + S during startup will boot your Mac into Single User Mode.

11. Press Command + R during Startup

If your system contains Mac OS X Lion, then you’re in luck because it has all of the necessary restore features built right in. Just hold down Command + R during startup to boot into Lion Recovery Mode - a complete copy of the Lion installer disc.

12. Press Shift + Control + Option: Reset the SMC

 When your Mac is exhibiting truly odd behavior, it may be worth resetting the System Management Controller (SMC),

13. Press X: Force a Boot into OS X, instead of Classic

 Finally, there’s X, which Apple says causes the Mac to “Start-up from an OS X startup volume when the Mac would otherwise start up from a non-OS X startup volume.” This one it’s a holdover from the early days of Mac OS X when it was used to keep the Mac from booting into the Classic environment

MacBook Pro 15' with Bad AMD Card

This worked for me:
boot using Command + s
manually type nvram fa4ce28d-b62f-4c99-9cc3-6815686e30f9:gpu-power-prefs=%01 and run it
manually type nvram boot-args="-v" and run it
boot using Command + r (this time it boots fine, no grey screen)
disable SIP: manually type csrutil disable and run it
manually type nvram fa4ce28d-b62f-4c99-9cc3-6815686e30f9:gpu-power-prefs=%01 and run it
manually type nvram boot-args="-v" and run it
boot using Command + s
manually type /sbin/mount -uw / 
manually type mkdir -p /System/Library/Extensions-off 
manually type mv /System/Library/Extensions/AMDRadeonX3000.kext /System/Library/Extensions-off/
manually type touch /System/Library/Extensions/

sudo nvram boot-args=""

First of all, it is possible to successfully boot a MBP to OS X while still using the failed GPU, after you remove the AMD drivers by booting in command line mode (CMD+S) and entering these commands:

1) fsck -fy (to check a disk)
2) mount -uw / (mount a root filesystem with read/write permissions)
3) sudo mkdir /AMD_Kexts/ (make a directory to store the AMD drivers in case you'll need them in future)
4) sudo mv /System/Library/Extensions/AMD*.* /AMD_Kexts/ (move the AMD drivers)
5) sudo rm -rf /System/Library/Caches/ (remove the AMD drivers cache)
6) sudo mkdir /System/Library/Caches/ (just in case OS X will be dumb and will not recreate this directory, I am creating it for OS X)
7) sudo touch /System/Library/Extensions/ (to update the timestamps so that new driver caches - without AMD drivers - will be definitely rebuilt)
8) sudo umount / (umount a partition to guarantee that your changes are flushed to it)
9) sudo reboot

List with a pause: ls -la | more

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